Monthly Archives: December 2019

The Benefit of Correctional Education to Reduce Recidivism in Namibia – Education

Education programmes in Namibia’s correctional facilities are aimed from being incarcerated to re-integration making education in its facilities a big-corner stone for the offenders. Correctional education is a fundamental component to rehabilitative programming offered in confinement facilities around the country.Staff members must understand the differences between screening and diagnostic testing in order to determine the psychological and educational level of the offender, in order to effectively place offenders according to their learning abilities. These educational programmes are aimed to equip offenders with basic reading and writing skills making them possible to communicate with fellow offenders, officers and stakeholders. The Adult Education programmes in Namibian’s Correctional facilities are aimed at enabling offenders with employment opportunities once they are released. This will therefore build on their self-esteem and enhance proper rehabilitation with the help of psychologists and social workers while they are incarcerated.The education component during incarceration plays an important role during the rehabilitation process. The Namibian Correctional Service therefore makes tremendous effort to prioritize the education of offenders through means of face – face teaching, vocational training and tertiary learning in order to equip the offenders with knowledge and skills. The role of teachers in this kind of environment is faced with many challenges, for example education might be interrupted in the interest of security. It is apparent that educational staff is faced with the ever-present challenge of finding the right balance between being a correctional officer and educationist at the same time. Teachers must find ways to motivate learners to stay focused despite their present world of confinement that can contribute to limited expectations and motivations of the learners.Moreover, a correctional education program should strive to focus its curriculum on teaching basic skills within the context of social and decision-making skills for the benefit of the offenders more recently full-time teachers was introduced within the system offering more hours of instruction in order to ensure quality.The opinion about Correctional facilities to the General public is a place to be scared of but least did they know what kind of activities are presented such as rehabilitation activities, education and vocational training in order for rehabilitation process to take place. Educational programs within confined areas also reduce recidivism meaning offenders not re-offending, particularly because these programs aim to impact the way an individual thinks. Various theories of learning and teaching exist on how to educate students. Although students have individual differences in the way they process information and learn, basic theories explain ways in which student learning can be maximized. The facility offered an innovative educational program that combined academic, social, and vocational aspects with other non-educational factors, such as exercising and outdoor activities. The programs help offenders develop the necessary social skills to avoid crime and addiction once they return to society. Therefore education programs create the fostering of social attitudes and instilling of temperaments that contradict the anti-social norms of confinement life.As a result, behavioural programs have been created and implemented in order to correct criminal thinking patterns. These programs aim to restructure their thinking ability and to help create positive thinking. On the other hand, education, vocational training, has moderate effects in reducing recidivism and increasing positive behaviour. Vocational programs in correctional facilities are successful due to the fact that they provide a change from confinement routines. They also provide services for offenders after they are released and provide clear opportunities for success in life after release. These opportunities for advancement are a significant incentive for offender’s participation in vocational programs. Correctional literacy programs should address different learning styles, literacy levels, and cultures. They should be centred on the student and adapted to be applicable to confinement culture.Through education, we begin to learn about ourselves and that is the key to its importance, self-awareness which will in turn break the cycle of recidivism. In addition, the Namibian Correctional facilities provide integrated and applicable vocational and basic academic training. It is of utmost importance that Namibia Correction Services provide correctional education programs that will be successful in the institution, with the aim of successfully re-integrate the offenders to become productive members of society once they are released.

Special Education Reform? – Education

I remember 20 plus years ago when I was getting my graduate degree in Special Education and a buddy of mine getting his degree in elementary education told me that his father, a school principal, said that I probably shouldn’t waste my time getting a masters in Special Education. He said that Special Education would be eventually fading out of public education. I was almost done with my masters at this point so I figured I would have to take my chances with it, besides what other choice did I have anyways at that point?I got a Special Education job and taught for about 10 year. There were a lot of ups and downs over those 10 years, and eventually I decided that I wanted a change so I got certified and switched over to high school history. At this point in my career I remembered what my friend had said a decade ago and wondered if I was ahead of the curve on schools no longer needing special education teachers, even though it was 10 years later. I wondered if my job was now safe in my new-found home in the history department.Well, I loved teaching history, but life has its own funny ways that aren’t aligned to us and what we want, so after a decade of teaching history I personally got a first class education on budget cuts and my job was eliminated. Thankfully, I landed on my feet back in Special Education, believe it or not.It had been more than two decades since my old graduate school buddy told me that the need for special education teachers was disappearing. During the previous two decades my friend had gone from graduate school to elementary school teacher to assistant principal to principal, just like his father had done. I had gone from graduate school to special education teacher to history teacher to back to special education teacher, like nobody else that I know had done. And believe it or not there was still a bunch of special education jobs available when I landed there for a second time. As a matter of fact, there was actually plenty of jobs there because there is a shortage of special education teachers in 49 out of our 50 states. Imagine that… Two decades after I was told that Special Education was going away, and I find that they still can’t seem to get enough special education teachers.Fast-forward a few more years to today and there is a new and interesting twist affecting Special Education called full inclusion. Now inclusion isn’t a new thing to our schools. As a matter of fact inclusion has a long interesting history in our schools.Six decades ago there was the Supreme Court Case of Brown v. Board of Education. In 1954 the new law of the land became integrated schools for all races. Four decades ago the ground-breaking law of Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) began to take effect and help ensure that more than six million students with disabilities have the right to a free and appropriate education, which means they too get to be included in with the general education population.To help this happen schools create a Planning and Placement Team (PPT) that meet and discuss a student’s Individual Education Program (IEP) and then place the student in the appropriate educational setting based on the student’s needs and the law. The placement also needs to be the least restrictive environment (LRE). I can still remember my college professor describing the least restrictive environment in a short story that one would not bring a machine gun to take care of a fly. Rather, one would just bring a fly-swatter to take care of a fly. In other words, if a kid’s disability can be dealt with in the neighborhood school, then the kid doesn’t have to be sent across town or even to another town’s special school.Today, many schools are trying to improve on this inclusion model and least restrictive environment by going from a partial to a full-inclusion model. Schools in the Los Angeles School District have moved a vast majority of their students out of their special education centers within the last three years and into neighborhood schools where they are fully integrated into elective classes like physical education, gardening and cooking. They are also integrated into regular main stream academic classes as well, but it’s usually not to the same degree as electives.Michigan schools say that want to break down the walls between general education and Special Education creating a system in which students will get more help when they need it, and that support doesn’t need to be in a separate special education classroom.Some school districts in Portland, Oregon are a little further along than the Los Angeles schools that are just bringing special education students back from special schools and Michigan schools that are just beginning to try full integration of its students and eliminating most of the special education classrooms.Being a little further along in the process Portland makes an interesting case study. Many of the parents who initially supported the idea of integrating special education students into regular education classrooms in Portland are now worried about how the Portland Public School System is doing it. Portland is aiming for full-inclusion by the year 2020. However, some of the teachers in Portland are saying, “Obviously the special education students are going to fail and they are going to act out because we are not meeting their needs… If there’s not the right support there, that’s not acceptable, not only for the child, but for the general education teacher as well.”A Portland parent said, “I would rather have my child feel successful than for them to be ‘college-ready’.” She further states, “I want my children to be good, well-rounded human beings that make the world a better place. I don’t think they necessarily need to go to college to do that. I think that children are individuals, and when we stop treating them as individuals, there’s a problem.” Sadly, many parents and teachers have left the Portland School District, and many more are fantasizing about it because they feel the full-inclusion model isn’t working there how they pictured it would.How much should schools integrate the special education students is the burning question of the hour. In my personal experience some integration is not only possible, but it’s a must. With some support many of the special education students can be in the regular education classrooms.A few years ago I even had a non-speaking paraplegic boy in a wheel chair who was on a breathing respirator sitting in my regular education social studies class. Every day his para professional and his nurse rolled him into and sat with him. He always smiled at the tales I told of Alexander the Great marching across 11,000 miles of territory and conquering much of the known world at that time. By the way, Alexander the Great also practiced his own model of inclusion by encouraging kindness to the conquered and encouraging his soldiers to marry the captured territory’s women in order to create a lasting peace.Other important factors to consider in special education inclusion is the much needed socialization and the saving of money integration offers. Kids learn from other kids and money not spent on Special Education could be spent on general education, right? Hmm…If you noticed, I said a little bit earlier that many special education students could be integrated, but I did not say all or even most should be integrated. There are just some students that are going to take away too much of the teacher’s time and attention from other students, such as, in the case of students with severe behavior problems. When we put severe behavior problems in regular education classes it’s just outright unfair to all of the other children in there. Similar cases could be made for other severe disabilities too that demand too much of the main stream teacher’s individual time and attention.Hey, I’m not saying to never try out a kid with a severe disability in a general education setting. But what I am saying is that schools need to have a better system of monitoring these placements and be able to quickly remove students that aren’t working out, and are taking precious learning time away from other students. Furthermore, schools need to do this without shaming the teacher because the teacher complained that the student wasn’t a good fit and was disrupting the educational learning process of the other students. Leaving a kid in an inappropriate placement isn’t good for any of the parties involved. Period.Over the last two decades I have worked with more special education students than I can remember as a special education teacher and a regular education teacher teaching inclusion classes. I have learned to become extremely flexible and patient and thus have had some of the toughest and most needy kids placed in my classes. I have worked miracles with these kids over the years and I know that I am not the only teacher out there doing this. There are many more out there just like me. But, what I worry about is that because teachers are so dedicated and pulling off daily miracles in the classroom, districts, community leaders, and politician may be pushing too hard for the full-inclusion model thinking that the teachers will just have to figure it out. Setting up teachers and students for failure is never a good idea.Furthermore, I hope it’s just not the money that they are trying to save while pushing this full-inclusion model forward because what we should really be trying to save is our children. As Fredrick Douglas said, “It is easier to build strong children than to repair broken men.” Regardless of how the financial educational pie is sliced, the bottom line is that the pie is just too small and our special education teachers and our special education students shouldn’t be made to pay for this.In addition, I have been a teacher for too long to not be at least a little skeptical when I hear the bosses say that the reason they are pushing for the full-inclusion model is because socialization is so important. I know it’s important. But, I also know that too many people are hanging their hats on that socialization excuse rather than education our special needs students and providing them what they really need. I have seen special education students whose abilities only let them draw pictures sitting in honors classes. There is no real socialization taking place here. It just doesn’t make sense.Well, finally coming full circle. It will be interesting to see where this full inclusion thing goes. The wise ones won’t let their special education teachers go, or get rid of their classrooms. And for the school districts that do, I imagine that it won’t take long before they realize the mistake they made and start hiring special education teachers back. To my friend and his now ex-principal father from all those years ago who thought special education was going away, well, we’re not there yet, and to tell you the truth, I don’t think we ever will be.