Tag Archives: education concept

Cure for Cancer Mathematics

The concept that cancer is endemic to tribes but not to species has been associated with the evolution of science itself. Tribal science evolves human intellect by developing weapons of war. This evolutionary procedure becomes a form of neurological cancer when DNA shows that the human species is harming itself. From that medical perspective, both tribal science and human survival science are part of human evolution. Therefore, both sciences can be programmed together with relevant antidote information in order to generate human survival simulations. Irrefutable medical diagnoses thus obtained will instigate crucial beneficial conflict dialogue between hostile tribes. As a result, relevant technologies will become evident, enhancing the transition to our functioning as a single species.

The Western educational system has access to this antidote information, however, it remains governed by tribal science traditions employing dysfunctional information. Epidemiologists refer to this phenomenon as a 3D epidemic transmitted through the mass manufacture of dysfunctional communication and information devices. Inessential information is now overloading our educational system, creating considerable global social chaos. This medical disorder is induced by tribal science’s obsolete obsession with the survival of the fittest paradigm.

The Founder of the American National Cancer Research Foundation, Szent-Gyorgyi, was awarded a Nobel Laureate in Medicine. His 1972 ‘Letter to Science’ advised that prevailing science was carcinogenic because it allowed itself to be governed by the ‘Second Law of Thermodynamics’. He postulated that the energies of thermodynamic chaos entangled with living information in order to evolve universal consciousness, hence the prevailing understanding of thermodynamics was in effect, cancerous. He referred to this tribal science cancer as being inherited from our Neolithic ancestors.

Visual mathematical proof of the antidote to this disease has been extrapolated from Western Education’s association with Plato’s educational system belonging to his ‘Science for Ethical Ends’. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Plato’s Ethics: An Overview, First published Tue Sep 16, 2003; substantive revision Wed Dec 6, 2017 comments on Plato’s description of the geometrical nature of courage, wisdom and moderation with the comment “If justice is health and harmony of the soul, then injustice must be disease and disorder”. Plato’s ‘All is Geometry’ concept considered the living anima to be a perpetual phenomenon. This integral aspect of the living process was given mathematical credence within Georg Cantor’s geometrical sensibilities.

Mitosis in healthy cell division has been photographed as a 3D electromagnetic, infinite fractal expression obeying Cantor’s geometrical access to infinity. This visual evidence contradicts the prevailing thermodynamic understanding that all life must become extinct. 21st Century quantum biology cancer research understands that healthy living information flows in the opposite direction to balance the flow of thermodynamic chaos energy, as Szent-Gyorgi had predicted in 1972.

Despite Plato’s tribal science limitations his genius geometrical intuition of a more profound, ethical, universal purpose is truly extraordinary. It provided the crucial antidote information to resolve the existing 3D global medical epidemic. His lodestone electromagnetic anima, held to exist within the confines of his plane geometry education system, is now clearly visible to the general public.

Salvador Dali’s conviction, derived from Platonic Science-Art theories, that the flat plane of a painting contained hidden 3D stereoscopic images, was made visible to the pubic last century at the Dali Stereoscopic Museum in Spain. Since then his rather cumbersome presentations have been greatly upgraded by Australian Science-Art researchers, in which interlocking 3D images within paintings can be viewed to provide crucial neurological antidote information. During the 1980s the relevant ancient Greek mathematics was programmed into a computer to obtain seashell lifeforms evolving over a period of fifty million years, rather that evolving towards Einstein’s thermodynamic extinction.

In 1990 the world’s largest research institute, IEEE in Washington, reprinted this as being an important mathematical, optical discovery belonging to 20th Century science:

Illert, C. 1987, The New Physics of Ultrathin Elastic Conoids, Il Nuovo Cimento, and Formation and Solution of the Classical Seashell problem II Tubular Three Dimensional Seashell Surfaces. Il Nuovo Cimento, 1989. The Science-Art Centre… selected from the World literature for reprinting in Spie Milestone Series, Vol. MS 15, selected papers on Natural Optical Activity, pages 12-23 and 24-33, section one. Chirality and Optical Activity, 1990.

In 1995 the Institute for Basic Research in America transposed the optical mathematics into a physics format. Attempts to use quantum mechanical mathematics to generate healthy seashell life-form simulations through time, resulted in biological distortions verifying Szent-Gyorgyi’s observation that tribal science is a form of cancer.

During 2016 quantum biologists and the Quantum Art Movement International together with the Australian Science-Art researchers presented the 3D antidote information along with the supporting information in Rome, Italy. The Science-Art presentation was then entered into the Russian Art Week International Contemporary Art Competition, where it was awarded a First Prize Diploma. In 2017 the World Art Fund in Russia, in collaboration with the Quantum Art Movement group, included the antidote information into their Science-Art Research Project.

The problem remains that prevailing international tribal science considers that it is ethical to link science with aesthetics, which is the carrier of the global epidemic. For example, in 2017 two American Universities created a ‘Time Crystal’ demonstrating that our understanding of thermodynamic reality was in fact an optical illusion. Nonetheless, they expressed intent to fuse such information into artificial intelligence technology. Under such circumstances the global 3D epidemic would be accelerated toward a terminal state of entropic, thermodynamic chaos.

The philosopher, Emmanuel Kant, researched Plato’s concept of lodestone’s electromagnetic ability to demonize aesthetics, as referred to in his dialogue between Socrates and Ion. Kant used the difference between aesthetics and ethical artistic wisdom as the foundation of the electromagnetic Golden Age of Danish Science. He deduced that the future of ethical thought belonged to an asymmetrical electromagnetic field evolving within the creative artistic mind.

The European space Agency’s Planck Observatory photographed the oldest light in the universe revealing that it was asymmetrical in nature, coming into existence before the creation of symmetrical, electromagnetic light. Therefore, Plato’s evolving ethical science moves from his dark abyss to the creation of asymmetrical light, then on to the creation of matter within its present symmetrical state of reality.

In 1957 the University of New York’s Library of Science published the book ‘Babylonian Mythology and Modern Science’ explaining that Einstein deduced his theory of relativity from Babylonian mythological intuitive mathematics. Einstein’s tribal worldview insisted that the living process must evolve itself toward thermodynamic extinction. He was therefore unable to accept David Hilbert’s argument to him that Cantor’s asymmetrical mathematics validated Szent-Gyorgyi’s cancer research conviction. Einstein’s physical reality was maintained by its remaining in a symmetrical state of existence, obeying the dictates of symmetrical light pointing to chaos, rather than in the opposite direction to that of Plato’s evolving ethical science. The Plank Observatory discovery demonstrated that Einstein’s world-view was by nature carcinogenic.

The philosopher of science, Timothy Morton, Professor and Chair of English at Rice University in Texas argues that Plato’s demonizing of aesthetics has taken us into a new electromagnetic era, which he refers to in his paper ‘Art in the Age of Asymmetry’. Kant’s anticipation of an ethical, spiritual, asymmetrical, electromagnetic technology was also echoed by Charles Proteus Steinmetz. He was a principal figure in the electrification of the United States of America, who stated that the development of a spiritual, asymmetrical, electromagnetic technology would have been far superior, and more morally beneficial, than the one he had been paid to help invent.

Plato argued the merits of learning plane geometry must not be studied for its practical uses but for training the mind for ethical understanding. He let arithmetic become the first of the subjects of education, then research into its relevant science was to become the student’s concern. From his published Notebooks, Leonardo da Vinci wrote that visual perspective was made clear by the five terms of Plato’s mathematical logic. Leonardo then made the statement that completely divorced his tribal scientific genius from Plato’s concept of an infinite, living, holographic 3D universe. Leonardo had written “The first object of the painter is to make a flat plane appear as a body in relief and projecting from that plane… “, he most emphatically claimed that the flat plane of a painting surface could never contain a true 3D image.

There is no doubting Leonardo da Vinci’s mechanistic genius. However, the visual evidence that paintings can indeed contain important unconscious, 3D stereoscopic images means he was certainly not the great man of the 15th Century Italian Renaissance that tribal science claims he was. This simple fact explains the magnitude of the present 3D global epidemic of dysfunctional information. It also provides the evidence to explain the crucial importance of the 3D antidote technology that belongs to Plato’s atomic ‘Science for Ethical Ends’, necessary to generate sustainable human survival blueprint simulations.

Sir Issac Newton’s Other Discovery

Most children are taught the story of Sir Issac Newton sitting under the apple tree and being struck in the head by a falling apple and how the falling apple prompted him to discover gravity. However, what kids are not told is that same event prompted another Newton invention. Gravity is the force that describes how things are pulled down toward the center of the earth. In order to explain the concept of gravity and to make the new concept more useful, Newton invented a whole new branch of mathematics called calculus. I have an engineer’s training and have taken more mathematics classes than the vast majority of the population. Although teaching calculus to kids at an early age may be difficult, the basic concepts behind calculus are very simple, easy to illustrate and are vitally important in the teaching of financial education concepts.

Prior to the invention of calculus, it was very hard to make sense of many things in nature, because math was limited to snapshots. Algebra, geometry and trigonometry only make sense for the given data at a certain time. If you wanted to see how things behaved with time you needed to figure out the equation at a bunch of different points and draw the graph to see it. Calculus allowed us to see how things are changing at a given instant. It allowed us to see that if we are in our car and slam on the brakes, we can predict how far and how long it will take us to stop. It allowed us to see if we are spending money at a given rate and earning money at a smaller rate, how long will it be until we run out of money. These types of measurements weren’t easily performed prior to the invention of calculus.

When it comes to personal finance, each of us does calculus all the time, though we may not realize it. Calculus is used to measure the rate at which something is changing at that instant. Week-to-week, month-to-month, we adults always work the Net Income equation to make choices. Net income is simply total income minus expenses. The bulk of financial education is geared toward increasing the rate of change of the net income equation. When we work to be more frugal, we are making expenses smaller. When we invest, take on additional jobs or get wage raises, we are making the gross income side bigger. Both of these increase the rate at which the net income equation is changing.

By using the net income equation, we can make predictions about where we are going to be financially in the future. When will I be able to afford that new item? Will I have enough money to go buy groceries or go to the movies? Will I be able to pay my tuition bill? Will there be enough left over to continue to pay for other things? These are the questions that one can reasonably answer through the help of calculus.

I find it unfortunate that teachers in schools often tell about the first discovery the Newton made that day, but so often neglect to mention the latter. Kids need to know the concept behind calculus and rate of change at an early age. It will help them throughout life. If you think about it, you will find many ways to illustrate these concepts for your children in the car, on the playground and in the home.

This type of learning is important, because gravity tells us that, on earth, unless we do something about it, things fall. This applies to equally to checking account balances as it does to apples.

Multiple Intelligences – The Pluralistic View of the Mind

Howard Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences Theory (MI Theory) (2006) states that human beings have different combinations of intelligences. This pluralistic approach is an alternative vision to the traditional notion that intelligence can be objectively measured and reduced to a single number, the IQ. The first intelligence tests carried out at the beginning of the twentieth century, which focused on verbal abilities, were developed by the French psychologist Alfred Binet and his colleagues in Paris. The motivation of their research was to respond to a request from the authorities to create a measure to predict which students were likely to need special attention in schooling. These early empirical experiments introduced the concept of intelligence as a quantifiable measure. Above all, the notion of intelligence as a single number has finally corroborated the one-dimensional view of the mind.

There are educational implications of this theory. Gardner points out that the IQ idea generated a corresponding view of school which he calls as the “uniform view”. This uniform view is responsible for a core curriculum – a set of things that everyone should know (critical reading and calculation, for example). So, the brightest students can go to the better colleges. Following these narrow standards, thousands of young people will never have a chance to flower. But can intelligence be a single construct? And besides, is this fair with the immense human potential? From Gardner’s idea of multifaceted intelligences emerges the concept of an individual-centered school. This vision sounds like Rorty’s understanding that persons should be educated as individuals. In the sphere of public education, every child should have an individualized education program. In a word, Gardner and Rorty show that the main problems in schools today lay on these issues of policy. We know now that all students need special attention in school. The authorities must understand that an individualized education is not just for students with special needs.

We have two attitudes toward mind. The traditional one which was considered as a scientific turn at the time. And the pluralistic view which in fact broadens the scope of human possibilities. The eight intelligences suggested by Gardner are: linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, musical, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalist. Recall that IQ test is based only on linguistic and logical-mathematical abilities. Both research and theory indicate that multiple student-level factors account for the variance in student achievement. Recent theories on the contextualization of intelligence say that the intellectual potential will depend on the culture in which the person happens to live. Life experiences are very important. It seems that the idea of mind as a single construct has been slowly fading.

The new comprehension of the intelligence is based on a radically different view of the mind. It gradually became clear that this theory yields a very different view of school. In all this we feel a remarkable respect for the differences among people, the varied ways that they learn.

Work cited

Howard Gardner. Multiple Intelligences. New Horizons (New York: Basic Books, 2006), 4-5.

Freedom And Education 2

BE:

Since my mindset is on alternatives-to-education I’ll take “Learning & Freedom” as my topic for this forum and avoid the oxymoron of the other. This gives me two learning/freedom threads, to develop one is the freedom-to-learn ; the other is learning-to-be free.

FREEDOM TO LEARN

Freedom to learn has been a topic of a long list of critics of education including Froebel, Goodman, Illich, Holt, Friere and others. It has also been the cry of an increasing number of today’s activists. My concern here is the gap between the wise men of the past and the activists of today. Although the leave school advocates and activists is rising at a impressive rate with the advent of homeschooling, charterschools, cyberlearning, vouchers, and a conglomerate of other educational modalities, very few, if any, have escaped the syndrome of educate/teach/school. Christian schooling is the whipping boy for a different purpose for brain washing. But nearly all other school refusers are based on the non existent “parental rights” — the right of parents to teach whatever they want to their children. They are almost paranoid in choosing or designing a curriculum for their children to follow. Ofttimes the state demands such a curriculum before they will recognize the right to homeschool.

Unschooling was used by some older critics to emphasize the student’s right to learn what they want, when they want, and how they want. Unschooling was meant to let the student from birth to practice hir own choice of learning. The parent was expected to be a mentor only help the children find the resources to learn whatever came to their minds. In practice “unschooling” has been only a slightly modified form of homeschooling. In a recent listserv for unschooling weeks were taken discussion how a parents could be sure that their children were learning the correct code of ethics. At some times it went further to discuss how parents could be sure that a sound basis for a future job was being built.

I think my own idea of unschooling, or freedom to learn, came during a three month stay at a hotel run my a Buddhist monastery in Katmandu during a U.N. project I was working on. Every morning I awoke with the chanting of the monks. Before breakfast the waiters lined up at one end of the dining room holding the spread out table clothes high above their heads. With the doors open at the other end of the room they wiggled the table clothe the herd the flies out. That was a lesson on refusal to kill. But my unschooling lessons came from a series of lectures held in the third floor library. While I an other listeners sat cross legged on the hard floor, the lead saffron robed monk sat on a silk cushion slightly higher than the learners. Since some of us spoke only English we had an interpreter. After each short pronouncement from the leader the interpreter would follow with “Articha says ….” and give us his translation. The eight lectures were on the Eight Fold Path — right views, right intention, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration.

I went in to each session expecting some clear guidance on how to live the right life. But Articha never lectured in good American school or church style. There was no preaching or teaching of what would happen if we did or did not follow the Eight Fold Path. No talk of rewards or punishments. Articha told stories, often funny stories, of his own life and that of the monks with whom he had learned. I learned by listening to examples. Perhaps my epiphany came near the end. I never did learn the name of our unassuming monk. I did learn that Articha was the pronunciation our translator had for “our teacher.”

LEARNING ABOUT FREEDOM

Learning about freedom is the other juxtaposition of learning & freedom. This to my mind it calls for the same action as freedom to learn. Both call for personal freedom. Freedom to learn IS learning about freedom.

Today’s school/teach/educate syndrome does neither. Locking young people away in authoritarian, hierarchal, competitive, materialistic schools not only stops one from learning but it also stops any thought of freedom or joy of living. It is exactly the opposite of learning about freedom. It teaches one to be on time, do what you are told, do not skip work, start and stop by the bell, neglect your own creativity, and subdue your desire for learning and freedom. It is good for training willing workers for a bring life of boring jobs and boring work.

But we should not blame only the schools. We need to look at society as a whole, particularly the home. Young people may need guidance. We don’t want them to run in the street in front of a speeding car. We want them to eat good food. We want the to learn to be good citizens. For the very young we tend to think it is difficult, and often a waste of time, to explain the reason behind every issue they face. It is easier to bark a command. “Eat your food.” “wash your hands.” “get dressed.” “go to school” “say your prayers, and “go to mass,” are easier to say than explain. The often used reason is said, or implied, “Because I say so.” There MAY be, or at least we tend to think, that there is a reason, if not a responsibility, to limit the freedom of the very young.

For most parents the issue of learning about freedom comes at a later date. Too often the pattern is too rigidly set by whenever that time comes to bring it about. Being controlled is set in the minds and actions of the young who have started their lives being taught that decisions are made for them. Even more critical it is set in the minds and actions of the parents or other elders who have grown into the habit of seeing and expecting their orders to be obeyed. Sometimes the orders are not expressed in words. They are inherent in what we do. Often they are just the way the family lives. We all go swimming after work every day. We all go the the library, to church, or shopping, or to grandma’s when the elders decide. There is nothing wrong with saying or doing whatever parents think is good. But it IS wrong to stifle natural curiosity and the feeling of freedom. There are many ways in which freedom — the power to act without compulsion — are limited for those growing up. If we want people to be free we have to at least be aware of all the ways that freedom is limited.

This comes more and more crucial as children grow up. At what age should parents give what freedom? In my view it is always too late. The sense of freedom should be with us from birth. As our culture exists we wait for a time of rebirth into freedom. Our love for our children and desire to protect them subsumes any transition into freedom.

EDUCATION/CONTROL OR LEARNING/FREEDOM

Freedom like Education has an obverse side. The obverse of freedom is control. In starker terms we might say the obverse of freedom is slavery. But neither education nor control is the bad side or the good side for, learning freedom. They are both processes as compared to goals. Education has the goal of learning. Parental control has the goal of freedom. The difference is what is given, and what is taken. In the end both learning and freedom have to be taken. It up to the individual to accept, and seize, the responsibility for ether learning or freedom.

Manish Jain, a home education advocate in India, developed the concept of “unlearning.” Jain’s concept is along the lines of Illich’s deschooling society, Gandhi’s honest reflection, Toefler’s de-conditioning, Buddha’s letting go, and other oft used terms like conviviality, de-institutionalizing, voluntary simplicity, re-patterning, and others. Unlearning is the process of moving beyond all the limitations instilled in a student by school, home and society. It is not about forgetting, emptying, destroying. Nor is it simply about critical thinking, positive thinking or problem-solving. At its most basic level, unlearning starts with looking at the realities and possibilities of life from other points of view. It involves becoming more conscious of different cultures and mental models, assumptions, generalizations, sacred constructs, cognitive blindness, expectations, anxieties, etc. It’s escaping the influence how we have been taught to understand reality, to create knowledge, to make choices, and how we grow. It is not an educational modality as much as it is a new social paradigm and worldview.

Jain’s research is the study of people, particularly young adults, who have escaped the confines of the standard social paradigm in spite of the being imbedded in it. They have risen above the mindset, worldview, and mainstream culture that is perpetuated by the school/educate/teach syndrome. They have reached a new level of freedom. The goal is to learn how we can all unlearn or, as Einstein put it, recognize that “”We can’t solve problems by using the same kind of thinking we used when we created them.”

Bill Ellis

Falling Standard Of Education In Nigeria: Who Is To Be Blame?

INTRODUCTION

The concept ” falling standard of Education” is a relative term because there is no well defined instruments to measure it with utmost reliability and validity. That is why scholars’ views on the concept varies. These scholars view it at different perspectives, depending on the angle each of them is looking at it.

Babalola, A (2006) sees the concept from admission of Nigerian University products in developed countries universities. That the first six Nigerian Universities (University of Ibadan, Ile Ife, Lagos, Benin, Nsukka and Zaria) had their products competing favourably with any other University in the world as their products were sought for by University of Harvard, Cambridge, Oxford and London for admission into their post-graduate courses. That these students record breaking performances and when they graduate are employed by the best multi-national companies and corporate bodies globally unlike today where no Nigerian University is among the top 6,000 Universities of the world (Adeniyi, Bello (2008) in Why no worry about rankings). He sees standard from how universities contribute to knowledge and solving problems besetting mankind.

According to Gateway to the Nation (2010), University of Ibadan is ranked 6,340th University in the world. In Africa, University of Ibadan is ranked 57th, OAU 69th and South African Universities are leading the way in Africa.

He also use written and spoken English as a yardstick for measuring standard of education which University of London conducted a research in West Africa and the result showed that teachers trained by colonial masters were better of than those trained by indigenous teachers.

He also used staffing, funding, foundation, origin and students as standard of education.

Standard of education to Dike, V. (2003) is how education contribute to the public health (or sociopolitical and economic development of a Nation).

Standard of education to either passing or failing of external examinations like WAEC, NECO, NABTEB, JAMB,(NOW UTME) among others.

Teachers without Boarders (2006) looks at educational standard from how the products of schools can be measured in terms of outcome. That is how school leavers contribute to the society in terms of cognitive affective and psychomotor. I will be using students to refer to both students and pupils, I will use head teacher to refer to both principal and headmaster.

Which ever way you may view standard of education, for you to conclude whether the standard is falling or not, you must take into consideration all the aforementioned variables including achieving educational goals.

Equally, for justice to be done while measuring these standards one has to look at reliability where all the schools to be measured must have the same infrastructure, teaching materials, quality of teachers, level and degree of learners, condition within which learning takes place, some methods of assessment and some types of contribution to the society among others.

CAUSES OF FALLING STANDARDS

Haven discussed what makes up standard in education, may I crave your indulgence to some of the established facts that constitute falling standard of education in Nigeria.

(1) Discipline: This is one of the outstanding attributes of education when it is rightly observed.

a. Repeating: school no longer observe repeating as every student is promoted to the next class whether they understand or not gives room for falling standard.

b. Attendance: The 75% of attendance universally accepted as the bases for someone to sit for examination is no longer observed.

c. Late coming: Student that come late are no longer punished, which leads to their losing morning classes.

d. Misbehaviour: Students are no longer punished for misbehavior because of their parental influences (lost of jobs or unnecessary transfer).

e. Cultism: This could refer to rituals, usually under oath binding the members to a common course. They operate covertly in fulfillment of their objectives to the detriment of other people. Thus, planning secondary needs above primary needs.

These cults exist because of over population of students in schools, wrong admissions not based on merits, hence fear of examination failures and selfish worldly gains.

(2) Quest for paper qualification: Nigerians respect paper qualification above performance in the fields. Hence, cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains are supposed to be measured on the field.

(3) Politicizing education: Merit is no longer regarded as it is now ” who you know” and not “what you can deliver” Technocrats (educationists are not appointed Commissioner of education and education board).

(4) Policy problem: Sometimes the type of policies government make on education adversely affects output. For instance, in College of Education, we have National Commission for Colleges of Education (NCCE), competing with JAMB for admission as the two guidelines vary.

Equally, WAEC, NECO, NABTEB, JAMB ( now UTME) compete with qualifying pre-requisites and regulation of entries into tertiary institutions.

(5) Teachers not being part of the examination bodies. One wonders whether the continuous Assessment submitted by these teachers are used or not.

(6) Accessibility of Schools: The Nigerian population boom has outnumbered the existing schools as the existing schools have to over admit.

This point can be practically seen in the following areas:

(i) Teacher / Student ratio of 1:25 is no longer there as in my class, it is 1:3900.

(ii) Students / books / Journals ratio of 1:10 is no longer feasible.

(iii) Politics of admission: Schools can no longer set targets for admission to conform with their facilities as powerful notes from above will force the school authorities to either over admit or find themselves in the labour market again. Yet it is those that are giving these notes are suppose to build more schools or provide needed infrastructure etc. to accommodate those collecting these notes.

(7) Over-dependent on cognitive domain: Schools do not give regards to affective domain that will mould characters of our young ones. Little attention is given to psychomotor while no attention is given to affective domain.

(8) Shortage of qualified teachers: Some schools in the rural areas only have the headmaster as government employee while the rest that may be secondary school drop outs are PTA staff. What miracle can these staff perform? Dike, V. (2006) observed that only 23% out of the then 400,000 primary schools in Nigeria have grade II even when NCE is now the minimum qualification for teachers at primary and Junior Secondary schools.

(9) Teachers welfare: It is no longer news that

(a) Politicians do not have negotiation council to negotiate their salary increase.

(b) There is no disparity among political office holders from the federal, state and local governments.

(c) Their salaries are increased at astronomical manner.

(d) Their salaries are increased any time without recourse to whether the nation’s economy can bear it or not.

(e) But for teachers, they must negotiate the 10 to 20% of an attempt to increase their salary with consideration of the economy of the nation. How can these teachers contribute and perform miracle when their family members are in the hospitals and the O.S. syndrome is written on their cards by pharmacists while they do not have money to treat.

(10) Constant Strikes: This is an impediment to smooth covering of syllabus. Oefule (2009) explained that one Nigerian guest asked a question on strike at Oxford University community but the vice chancellor could not even remember about strike, only the registrar remembered it for 17 years back. This is what governance means to the people.

(11) Long rule of the military; Education was not properly funded by the military regimes as according to Babalola, A(2006) Obasanjos administration inherited many left over problems of the military such as non- payment of pensions and gratuities of retired University staff, poor remuneration of university staff, dilapidating buildings of schools, libraries with outdated books, obsolete laboratory equipments, bad campus roads, inadequate water and power supply among others.

(12) In the secondary and primary schools levels, schools do not even have buildings talk less` of furniture’s, equipments and reading materials. This is the level where the foundation of education should be laid. Any faulty foundation will lead to faulty structures. What do you expect from the tertiary level?

(13) Lack of training of teachers: Teachers are not trained to update their knowledge with latest discoveries based on research, then how can they give what they don’t have?

(14) Poor state of Educational teaching facilities: Dike V. (2006) reported that research result shows that over 2015 primary schools in Nigeria do not have building but study under trees, talk less of teaching materials.

(15) Corruption: leaders of the schools and some Government officials either connive to buy equipments with loan money that cannot be of any use to the school or take such loans and do not even do anything with it.

(16) Poor budgetary allocation to education: A research work of 2001 shows that Nigeria only, allocate less than 20% to education it further reveals that Nigeria spends 0.76% to education as against Uganda 2.6%, Tanzania3.4%, Mozambique 4.1%, Angola 4.9%, Coted Ivore 5% Kenya 6.5% and South Africa 7.9% among others.

WHO IS TO BE BLAMED?

We have seen the causes of falling standards and from these causes we can deduce that the following are to be blamed:

1. Government suppose to carry the lion share of the blame because all the other variables are dependent variables to it.

2. Teachers also have their shares of the blame with regards to their diligent duties.

3. Parents: feeding has to be provided by parents. This is because parents do not leave schools to operate without interference.

4. Students: students who do not abide by school rules and regulations nor pay attention to their studies also contribute to falling standards. Students also seek for paper qualification and disregards to performance they also participate in cult activities that derail the progress of the academy.

5. The society is not left out as it is the way it sees and respects the products of these schools that recycles back again.

SOLUTION

Based on the problems or causes identified above, the following solutions are proffered: Schools should respect and restore back discipline to bring back the lost glory of our educational standards.

Performance should be regarded and respected more than just paper qualification. Equally, education should not be politicized for whatever reason.

Policy makers should be mindful of policies that affect education .eg JAMB(UTME) regulation in admissions.

Teachers should be involved in examination activities and examination bodies should always publish examination reports and distribute it to various schools for them to hold school workshop for training of subject teachers on their areas of weaknesses observed in the students’ scripts with regards to following the marking scheme.

More schools should be built to increase accessibility by all. Cognitive, affective and psychomotor domain should be used for assessment of students.

Teachers’ welfare should be given priority by government to avoid unnecessary strikes in our educational sector while more qualified teachers should be employed to curb the present shortage of teachers in our schools.

Our civilian government should prove to the people that they are better than military government.

Teachers should be trained so that they can meet up with any new challenges Educational facilities should be upgraded to modern standards while teaching facilities should be adequately provided.

Corruption should be eliminated to the barest minimum by all stakeholders while government should increase its budgetary allocations to education to improve the standard of education in Nigeria.

Education & Technology – Then and Now

If anyone ever wants to know whether education technology, specifically video, works in the classroom, all one has to utter in response is: “Conjunction junction, what’s your function?” or “I’m just a bill on Capitol Hill.” It’s unlikely you’ll find anyone born after 1955 that doesn’t remember at least a concept or two from the Schoolhouse Rock series that was originally produced between 1973 and 1986.

We’ve all had the experience when we hear a familiar song and immediately recall a moment from our past connected to the song. It was proven long ago, and Schoolhouse Rock is an additional testament to the fact, that when both audio and visual elements are added to educational concepts, students are engaged at a deeper level and more likely to retain that information.

In the words of Hannah, a child interviewed during a research project on how video enhances learning, “A lot of us watch TV, and we remember TV,” she said. “When the teacher tells us to read directions in a book or when she’s trying to explain things, I don’t always understand. But when she shows us, I understand it more.”

The practice of using education technology and enhancing curriculum with audio-visual elements grew rapidly during the last half of the 20th century. In the last ten years or so, however, the technology explosion has produced enhancements in communication, entertainment, and information retrieval and has sent children’s education in different directions.

In light of this, does video still have a place as part of our education technology tool set? Of course! A good educational video, whether delivered via VHS, DVD, or from a website, when used appropriately in the curriculum, still provides the following benefits:

o Appeals to Multiple Learning Styles – Different videos can explain a single concept in completely different ways which increases the likelihood of the student learning what is being taught.

o Appeals to Multiple Teaching Styles – The use of videos as part of education technology allows teachers a variety of ways to cover the curriculum.

o Connects Concepts to Applications – Teachers can use situations portrayed in the video to inspire students to come up with their own examples of the concept being taught.

o Students Gain Deeper Understanding – Students having difficulty with a particular concept can repeat viewing a video, by themselves, at their own pace, until they develop the necessary understanding.

o Attention Leads to Retention – Attentiveness increases when students are presented with concrete, visual images that are fast-paced and interesting. Naturally attentive students become more knowledgeable and perform better on assessments.

A year after the research project involving Hannah, she could still remember the concepts taught through video and the teachers were convinced student performance had improved. And, if you can remember even one of the concepts taught by Schoolhouse Rock, the case for using video is made.

Quality of Education and the Recruiters

I studied engineering in Shivaji University which is a reputed university now but at the time when I was growing up the engineering students from this university were ridiculed for their lack of knowledge and ability. Generally, the recruiting process of headhunters places an overwhelming emphasis on the final interview deciding the fortune of a fresh candidate. This was unfair to the candidates from smaller cities as their English was not up to the mark and despite being fluent engineers and qualifying through rigorous tests they were getting rejected in the interview. This thinking by the recruiters of selecting the best among equals was clearly defective. I do agree that when the candidates are almost equal in their qualifications and knowledge and ability some criteria have to be there for selecting a candidate right? Adequate speaking abilities are needed even for engineering jobs, but my English speaking abilities deciding my chances of getting an engineering job is really ridiculous. Now that I have become a writer my chances will be really good right? Just kidding!

Similar such defective procedures which are in place in various fields need to be corrected for various appointments. There are many kinds of jobs in general such as, government jobs, private jobs and the jobs in charity organizations etc. All these jobs will have different requirements, facilities offered and remuneration. But nobody tells this in any syllabus I know of. Why are students not intimated officially that they will face this environment and they should know about it. The reality is that they find out, but this inclusion in my syllabus makes it quality education for me especially when you are opting for professional courses.

Education cannot be just practical or theoretical when a student joins the school at a tender age. It has to such that all students need to be given equal opportunity to understand, interpret and most importantly execute what they have learned. It has to be fun as well as disciplined in its approach. The person imparting this education needs to be a personality that children would like to be with. We already have a lot of stress in our lives and it must be reduced. So, start with the new generation. Teach them the importance of breathing in the fresh air first. Then, if needed they will learn about technology. It is all here, no need to become desperate about learning and using it.

Remember there are several great career opportunities in place now such as professional sports, art, event management, farming even and what not. So the parents just gearing up for their child’s education need to calm down a bit. It’s the child who is taking the education and not you. People often talk about the bygone days and they wish that they will come back. Do you wonder why? The mechanization has slowly but surely slowed down the importance of the development of human qualities. Please remember various options have to be available to the child when he is about 15 years old. That’s when he will realize what he would like to do with his future. So, the education must have supported him in such a way that he knows all the options at that time. Well reasonably at least. A mindless emphasis on formal education induces stress and boredom in the minds of youngsters after a while.

I know we will probably have some businessman opening an event management business course and make even more money. Why doesn’t the government do it with the tax payer’s money? That is a good investment. A quest for world-class education is not possible for everyone. The Indian education system mostly has to develop syllabi that will eventually be useful for Indian environment. Find new employment opportunities especially in the agriculture sector and develop students with information at the college level. Homeschooling is also different and a sort of “old is gold” concept. Vocational trade schools, online education etc are some of the several different modes of education available which is great.

I was in Australia for a while. A job in a metro such as Adelaide probably paid me around AUD 15 per hour. If I went to a smaller town such as Naracoorte the same job would give me AUD 17. Why? They are trying to move the large influx of job hunters in cities to smaller towns where they could make more money and live a peaceful life. It is a win-win situation. More money, fewer expenses, all facilities and a peaceful long life. The city dwellers, you don’t want that? You got be kidding me!! Anyway, the point is that such clever government initiatives make alternate lifestyles more attractive by the time you finish school. So these updates have to be available during professional courses to the students officially. That is quality education. Not how many hours I spent at the desk. Why should a person be required to work 12 hours daily unless there is something seriously wrong with my work system? Now if a student is from such university/organization which takes all these pains I will give him/her preference as a recruiter. Opinions definitely solicited!!

Paper Crafting In Schools: Scrapbooking Concepts Used In The Educational System

Scrapbookers have a few benefits which they can experience during and after their scrapbooking and paper crafting activities. The first of these is included in artistic hobbies themselves; they give them a chance to flush through emotions and experiences which makes for better emotional health overtime. The second gift is they can perfect a certain set of skills through practice. And a third gift that scrapbooking gives can be seen as a collection: the ability to incorporate new lessons, new concepts and new and innovative thinking into other parts of their lives as a result of what took place during the scrapbooking.

For a practical example of the first concept, consider apparent scrapbooking a collection of family photos for hours at a time, dipping deep into the moments of flow where new thought enters and time suspends, and coming to some conclusion that is a “lightbulb” moment so to speak. Those insightful realizations which are likely to take place when the logical mind takes a break and the creative mind leads the wheel can be very helpful for the improvement of our lives especially in the realm of those things which we end up taking into our scrapbooking practices: family moments, individual goals and treasures and concepts which make us feel more alive.

Paper crafting in schools usually takes one of two forms. The second is similar to the first benefit above, where the creative mind leads scrapbookers to memorialize emotional events and the result brings a fulfilling feeling. Examples of this are the handmade Valentines, Mother’s Day and Father’s Day cards which many children are encouraged to make early on in their education.

The second way scrapbook concepts are traditionally used in schools is for learning purposes. Learning to spell through crafts is a practice used in schools by teachers who direct children to cut letters out from paper, to add them together, to make sounds and to rearrange the collection of them for words. Somewhere in the country there is teacher with several pieces of paper representing different animals and letters and a class being led to interpret these into words. Although we often see preschoolers using the scissors, the word cut outs and the collage of photos and letters to bridge new concepts with the attentiveness of creative work, the idea of crafting to solidify “left brain” concepts is not sectioned off strictly to early childhood education.

As middle-school students are urged to explore the meaning of collages through group projects which require poster board and symbolic representations of the main points of material they’ve been studying, and as middle and high school students are encouraged to make yearly science projects which combine a multitude of pictures, graphs and words to express thoughts, the main elements of scrapbooking in educational systems becomes more and more clear.

The reason we don’t stop scrapbooking at any age is simply what many in the educational system have figured out; we don’t just think in terns of sentences. We think in terms of symbols and pieces coming together. And we also find it easier to remember information when we progress through a project which allows us to play with those symbols and collect them as unifying concepts reinforcing the same idea.

Diversity in Education and Curriculum Concepts – Book Review

Are you interested in a future in teaching, education administration, or becoming a social worker, or school psychologist, then there is a book, which I’d like to recommend that your read, and then I’d like to give you a more than fair assessment of this work.

“Multicultural Education in a Pluralistic Society,” by Donna M. Gollnick and Philip C. Chinn, Pearson Merrill a Prentice Hall Company, Upper Saddle River, NJ, (2006), pp. 404, ISBN: 0-13-119719-3.

This book was quite interesting to me, and its first publishing was in 1983 and it has been upgraded and republished every few years since. I felt as if the book was very hard to use because it has the Preface prior to the table of contents, which makes navigating very tough. The preface is quite good and explains how the book is formatted.

Once into the book it is very easy to follow along, even the most blithering idiot could use this book and understand it, perhaps, that is their target reader; at least this is the impression I got, and speaking of impression, I believe this book is trying to brainwash the “education student” who has an impressionable mind, this is my opinion based on reading it.

Indeed, as a coordinator for a think tank online I was really worried that such books are indeed being used to train and teach new teachers and college professionals, and students who will go into the educational profession as administrators, professors, psychologists, etc. There are chapters on social classes, race, homosexuality, diversity, gender, religion, and age. There are sub-chapters such as; Hate Groups

Racial Identification

Bullying

Self Esteem

Sexual Harassment

Anyway, you get the idea of what this wonderful book is all about, unfortunately after reading through it all, I decided I really didn’t have room on my many book shelves for it. And I chose not to donate it to a Thrift Store, and I failed to put it into the recycle bin – it has gone straight into the trash. But, I think this is a great book for a neo-liberal-socialist. And I recommend that you read this book so you can understand how all this political correctness has permeated in our society and how it started in academia.

This book also had everything reiterated and duplicated on a CD ROM with videos, and roll-playing on each chapter. I suppose this is for those in academia who cannot read well, and yet, might still be teaching our children and kids. Look, anyone who is serious about teaching needs to understand how it all works, and what it’s all about, even if you disagree with every single aspect of it. This is why I read the book, and duly discharged to where I believe it belongs. Please consider this.

History of Educational Technology

There is no written evidence which can tell us exactly who has coined the phrase educational technology. Different educationists, scientists and philosophers at different time intervals have put forwarded different definitions of Educational Technology. Educational technology is a multifaceted and integrated process involving people, procedure, ideas, devices, and organization, where technology from different fields of science is borrowed as per the need and requirement of education for implementing, evaluating, and managing solutions to those problems involved in all aspects of human learning.

Educational technology, broadly speaking, has passed through five stages.

The first stage of educational technology is coupled with the use of aids like charts, maps, symbols, models, specimens and concrete materials. The term educational technology was used as synonyms to audio-visual aids.

The second stage of educational technology is associated with the ‘electronic revolution’ with the introduction and establishment of sophisticated hardware and software. Use of various audio-visual aids like projector, magic lanterns, tape-recorder, radio and television brought a revolutionary change in the educational scenario. Accordingly, educational technology concept was taken in terms of these sophisticated instruments and equipments for effective presentation of instructional materials.

The third stage of educational technology is linked with the development of mass media which in turn led to ‘communication revolution’ for instructional purposes. Computer-assisted Instruction (CAI) used for education since 1950s also became popular during this era.

The fourth stage of educational technology is discernible by the individualized process of instruction. The invention of programmed learning and programmed instruction provided a new dimension to educational technology. A system of self-learning based on self-instructional materials and teaching machines emerged.

The latest concept of educational technology is influenced by the concept of system engineering or system approach which focuses on language laboratories, teaching machines, programmed instruction, multimedia technologies and the use of the computer in instruction. According to it, educational technology is a systematic way of designing, carrying out and evaluating the total process of teaching and learning in terms of specific objectives based on research.

Educational technology during the Stone Age, the Bronze Age, and the Iron Age

Educational technology, despite the uncertainty of the origin of the term, can be traced back to the time of the three-age system periodization of human prehistory; namely the Stone Age, the Bronze Age, and the Iron Age.

Duringthe Stone Age, ignition of fire by rubbing stones, manufacture of various handmade weapon and utensils from stones and clothing practice were some of the simple technological developments of utmost importance. A fraction of Stone Age people developed ocean-worthy outrigger canoe ship technology to migrate from one place to another across the Ocean, by which they developed their first informal education of knowledge of the ocean currents, weather conditions, sailing practice, astronavigation, and star maps. During the later Stone Age period (Neolithic period),for agricultural practice, polished stone tools were made from a variety of hard rocks largely by digging underground tunnels, which can be considered as the first steps in mining technology. The polished axes were so effective that even after appearance of bronze and iron; people used it for clearing forest and the establishment of crop farming.

Although Stone Age cultures left no written records, but archaeological evidences proved their shift from nomadic life to agricultural settlement. Ancient tools conserved in different museums, cave paintings like Altamira Cave in Spain, and other prehistoric art, such as the Venus of Willendorf, Mother Goddess from Laussel, France etc. are some of the evidences in favour of their cultures.

Neolithic Revolution of Stone Age resulted into the appearance of Bronze Age with development of agriculture, animal domestication, and the adoption of permanent settlements. For these practices Bronze Age people further developed metal smelting, with copper and later bronze, an alloy of tin and copper, being the materials of their choice.

The Iron Age people replaced bronze and developed the knowledge of iron smelting technology to lower the cost of living since iron utensils were stronger and cheaper than bronze equivalents. In many Eurasian cultures, the Iron Age was the last period before the development of written scripts.

Educational technology during the period of Ancient civilizations

According to Paul Saettler, 2004, Educational technology can be traced back to the time when tribal priests systematized bodies of knowledge and ancient cultures invented pictographs or sign writing to record and transmit information. In every stage of human civilization, one can find an instructional technique or set of procedures intended to implement a particular culture which were also supported by number of investigations and evidences. The more advanced the culture, the more complex became the technology of instruction designed to reflect particular ways of individual and social behaviour intended to run an educated society. Over centuries, each significant shift in educational values, goals or objectives led to diverse technologies of instruction.

The greatest advances in technology and engineering came with the rise of the ancient civilizations. These advances stimulated and educated other societies in the world to adopt new ways of living and governance.

The Indus Valley Civilization was an early Bronze Age civilization which was located in the northwestern region of the Indian Subcontinent. The civilization was primarily flourished around the Indus River basin of the Indus and the Punjab region, extending upto the Ghaggar-Hakra River valley and the Ganges-Yamuna Doab, (most of the part is under today’s Pakistan and the western states of modern-day India as well as some part of the civilization extending upto southeastern Afghanistan, and the easternmost part of Balochistan, Iran).

There is a long term controversy to be sure about the language that the Harappan people spoke. It is assumed that their writing was at least seems to be or a pictographic script. The script appears to have had about 400 basic signs, with lots of variations. People write their script with the direction generally from right to left. Most of the writing was found on seals and sealings which were probably used in trade and official & administrative work.

Harappan people had the knowledge of the measuring tools of length, mass, and time. They were the first in the world to develop a system of uniform weights and measures.

In a study carried out by P. N. Rao et al. in 2009, published in Science, computer scientists found that the Indus script’s pattern is closer to that of spoken words, which supported the proposed hypothesis that it codes for an as-yet-unknown language.

According to the Chinese Civilization, some of the major techno-offerings from China include paper, early seismological detectors, toilet paper, matches, iron plough, the multi-tube seed drill, the suspension bridge, the wheelbarrow, the parachute, natural gas as fuel, the magnetic compass, the raised-relief map, the blast furnace, the propeller, the crossbow, the South Pointing Chariot, and gun powder. With the invent of paper they have given their first step towards developments of educational technology by further culturing different handmade products of paper as means of visual aids.

Ancient Egyptian language was at one point one of the longest surviving and used languages in the world. Their script was made up of pictures of the real things like birds, animals, different tools, etc. These pictures are popularly called hieroglyph. Their language was made up of above 500 hieroglyphs which are known as hieroglyphics. On the stone monuments or tombs which were discovered and rescued latter on provides the evidence of existence of many forms of artistic hieroglyphics in ancient Egypt.

Educational technology during Medieval and Modern Period

Paper and the pulp papermaking process which was developed in China during the early 2nd century AD, was carried to the Middle East and was spread to Mediterranean by the Muslim conquests. Evidences support that a paper mill was also established in Sicily in the 12th century. The discovery of spinning wheel increased the productivity of thread making process to a great extent and when Lynn White added the spinning wheel with increasing supply of rags, this led to the production of cheap paper, which was a prime factor in the development of printing technology.

The invention of the printing press was taken place in approximately 1450 AD, by Johannes Gutenburg, a German inventor. The invention of printing press was a prime developmental factor in the history of educational technology to convey the instruction as per the need of the complex and advanced-technology cultured society.

In the pre-industrial phases, while industry was simply the handwork at artisan level, the instructional processes were relied heavily upon simple things like the slate, the horn book, the blackboard, and chalk. It was limited to a single text book with a few illustrations. Educational technology was considered synonymous to simple aids like charts and pictures.

The year 1873 may be considered a landmark in the early history of technology of education or audio-visual education. An exhibition was held in Vienna at international level in which an American school won the admiration of the educators for the exhibition of maps, charts, textbooks and other equipments.

Maria Montessori (1870-1952), internationally renowned child educator and the originator of Montessori Method exerted a dynamic impact on educational technology through her development of graded materials designed to provide for the proper sequencing of subject matter for each individual learner. Modern educational technology suggests many extension of Montessori’s idea of prepared child centered environment.

In1833, Charles Babbage’s design of a general purpose computing device laid the foundation of the modern computer and in 1943, the first computing machine as per hi design was constructed by International Business Machines Corporation in USA. The Computer Assisted instruction (CAI) in which the computer functions essentially as a tutor as well as the Talking Type writer was developed by O.K. Moore in 1966. Since 1974, computers are interestingly used in education in schools, colleges and universities.

In the beginning of the 19th century, there were noteworthy changes in the field of education. British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), right from its start of school broadcasts in 1920 had maintained rapid pace in making sound contribution to formal education. In the USA, by 1952, 20 states had the provision for educational broadcasting. Parallel to this time about 98% of the schools in United Kingdom were equipped with radios and there were regular daily programmes.

Sidney L. Pressey, a psychologist of Ohio state university developed a self-teaching machine called ‘Drum Tutor’ in 1920. Professor Skinner, however, in his famous article ‘Science of Learning and art of Teaching’ published in 1945 pleaded for the application of the knowledge derived from behavioral psychology to classroom procedures and suggested automated teaching devices as means of doing so.

Although the first practical use of Regular television broadcasts was in Germany in 1929 and in 1936 the Olympic Games in Berlin were broadcasted through television stations in Berlin, Open circuit television began to be used primarily for broadcasting programmes for entertainment in 1950. Since 1960, television is used for educational purposes.

In 1950, Brynmor, in England, used educational technological steps for the first time. It is to be cared that in 1960, as a result of industrial revolution in America and Russia, other countries also started progressing in the filed of educational technology. In this way, the beginning of educational technology took place in 1960 from America and Russia and now it has reached England, Europe and India.

During the time of around 1950s, new technocracy was turning it attraction to educations when there was a steep shortage of teachers in America and therefore an urgent need of educational technology was felt. Dr. Alvin C. Eurich and a little later his associate, Dr. Alexander J. Stoddard introduced mass production technology in America.

Team teaching had its origin in America in the mid of 1950’s and was first started in the year 1955 at Harvard University as a part of internship plan.

In the year 1956, Benjamin Bloom from USA introduced the taxonomy of educational objectives through his publication, “The Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, The Classification of Educational Goals, Handbook I: Cognitive Domain”.

In 1961, Micro teaching technique was first adopted by Dwight W. Allen and his co-workers at Stanford University in USA.

Electronics is the main technology being developed in the beginning of 21st century. Broadband Internet access became popular and occupied almost all the important offices and educational places and even in common places in developed countries with the advantage of connecting home computers with music libraries and mobile phones.

Today’s classroom is more likely to be a technology lab, a room with rows of students using internet connected or Wi-Fi enabled laptops, palmtops, notepad, or perhaps students are attending a video conferencing or virtual classroom or may have been listening to a podcast or taking in a video lecture. Rapid technological changes in the field of educational have created new ways to teach and to learn. Technological changes also motivated the teachers to access a variety of information on a global scale via the Internet, to enhance their lessons as well as to make them competent professional in their area of concern. At the same time, students can utilize vast resources of the Internet to enrich their learning experience to cope up with changing trend of the society. Now a days students as well teachers are attending seminars, conferences, workshops at national and international level by using the multimedia techno-resources like PowerPoint and even they pursue a variety of important courses of their choice in distance mode via online learning ways. Online learning facility has opened infinite number of doors of opportunities for today’s learner to make their life happier than ever before.